Garnett H. Kelsoe, DSc, MS, MS



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Professor of Immunology
117 Jones Bldg, 207 Research D
Box 3010 DUMC
Durham, NC 27710
Office Telephone:
(919) 613-7815
  • DSc, Harvard University, 1979
  • MS, Southern Methodist University, 1974
  • MS, Harvard University, 1975
Research Interests:
1. Lymphocyte development and antigen-driven diversification of immunoglobulin and T cell antigen receptor genes.
2. The germinal center reaction and mechanisms for clonal selection and self - tolerace. The origins of autoimmunity.
3. Interaction of innate- and adaptive immunity and the role of inflammation in lymphoid organogenesis.
4. The role of secondary V(D)J gene rearrangment in lymphocyte development and malignancies.
5. Mathematical modeling of immune responses, DNA motifs, collaborations in bioinformatics.
6. Humoral immunity to influenza and HIV-1.
Representative Publications:
  • Kelsoe, G. Heavy-chain receptor editing unbound. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA. 2015;112:2297-2298.  
  • Liu, M; Yang, G; Wiehe, K; Nicely, NI; Vandergrift, NA; Rountree, W; Bonsignori, M; Alam, SM; Gao, J; Haynes, BF; Kelsoe, G. Polyreactivity and autoreactivity among HIV-1 antibodies. Journal of virology. 2015;89:784-798.  Abstract
  • Reynolds, AE; Kuraoka, M; Kelsoe, G. Natural IgM Is produced by CD5- Plasma cells that occupy a distinct survival niche in bone marrow. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 2015;194:231-242.  
  • Gao, F; Bonsignori, M; Liao, HX; Kumar, A; Xia, SM; Lu, X; Cai, F; Hwang, KK; Song, H; Zhou, T; Lynch, RM; Alam, SM; Moody, MA; Ferrari, G; Berrong, M; Kelsoe, G; Shaw, GM; Hahn, BH; Montefiori, DC; Kamanga, G; Cohen, MS; Hraber, P; Kwong, PD; Korber, BT; Mascola, JR; Kepler, TB; Haynes, BF. Cooperation of B cell lineages in induction of HIV-1-broadly neutralizing antibodies. Cell. 2014;158:481-491.  Abstract
  • Holl, TM; Yang, G; Kuraoka, M; Verkoczy, L; Alam, SM; Moody, MA; Haynes, BF; Kelsoe, G. Enhanced antibody responses to an HIV-1 membrane-proximal external region antigen in mice reconstituted with cultured lymphocytes. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 2014;192:3269-3279.  Abstract
  • Kepler, TB; Liao, HX; Alam, SM; Bhaskarabhatla, R; Zhang, R; Yandava, C; Stewart, S; Anasti, K; Kelsoe, G; Parks, R; Lloyd, KE; Stolarchuk, C; Pritchett, J; Solomon, E; Friberg, E; Morris, L; Karim, SS; Cohen, MS; Walter, E; Moody, MA; Wu, X; Altae-Tran, HR; Georgiev, IS; Kwong, PD; Boyd, SD; Fire, AZ; Mascola, JR; Haynes, BF. Immunoglobulin gene insertions and deletions in the affinity maturation of HIV-1 broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies. Cell Host & Microbe. 2014;16:304-313.  Abstract
  • Cain, DW; O'Koren, EG; Kan, MJ; Womble, M; Sempowski, GD; Hopper, K; Gunn, MD; Kelsoe, G. Identification of a tissue-specific, C/EBPß-dependent pathway of differentiation for murine peritoneal macrophages. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 2013;191:4665-4675.  Abstract
  • McWilliams, L; Su, KY; Liang, X; Liao, D; Floyd, S; Amos, J; Moody, MA; Kelsoe, G; Kuraoka, M. The human fetal lymphocyte lineage: identification by CD27 and LIN28B expression in B cell progenitors. Journal of leukocyte biology. 2013;94:991-1001.  Abstract
  • Yang, G; Holl, TM; Liu, Y; Li, Y; Lu, X; Nicely, NI; Kepler, TB; Alam, SM; Liao, HX; Cain, DW; Spicer, L; VandeBerg, JL; Haynes, BF; Kelsoe, G. Identification of autoantigens recognized by the 2F5 and 4E10 broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 2013;210:241-256.  Abstract
  • Haynes, BF; Kelsoe, G; Harrison, SC; Kepler, TB. B-cell-lineage immunogen design in vaccine development with HIV-1 as a case study. Nature Biotechnology. 2012;30:423-433.  Abstract
  • Cain, DW; Snowden, PB; Sempowski, GD; Kelsoe, G. Inflammation triggers emergency granulopoiesis through a density-dependent feedback mechanism. PloS one. 2011;6:e19957.  Abstract
  • Kuraoka, M; Holl, TM; Liao, D; Womble, M; Cain, DW; Reynolds, AE; Kelsoe, G. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase mediates central tolerance in B cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA. 2011;108:11560-11565.  Abstract
  • Verkoczy, L; Chen, Y; Bouton-Verville, H; Zhang, J; Diaz, M; Hutchinson, J; Ouyang, YB; Alam, SM; Holl, TM; Hwang, KK; Kelsoe, G; Haynes, BF. Rescue of HIV-1 broad neutralizing antibody-expressing B cells in 2F5 VH x VL knockin mice reveals multiple tolerance controls. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 2011;187:3785-3797.  Abstract
  • Verkoczy, L; Kelsoe, G; Moody, MA; Haynes, BF. Role of immune mechanisms in induction of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies. Current Opinion in Immunology. 2011;23:383-390.  Abstract
  • Holl, TM; Haynes, BF; Kelsoe, G. Stromal cell independent B cell development in vitro: generation and recovery of autoreactive clones. Journal of Immunological Methods. 2010;354:53-67.  Abstract
  • Nicely, NI; Dennison, SM; Spicer, L; Scearce, RM; Kelsoe, G; Ueda, Y; Chen, H; Liao, HX; Alam, SM; Haynes, BF. Crystal structure of a non-neutralizing antibody to the HIV-1 gp41 membrane-proximal external region. Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. 2010;17:1492-1494.  Abstract
  • Verkoczy, L; Diaz, M; Holl, TM; Ouyang, YB; Bouton-Verville, H; Alam, SM; Liao, HX; Kelsoe, G; Haynes, BF. Autoreactivity in an HIV-1 broadly reactive neutralizing antibody variable region heavy chain induces immunologic tolerance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA. 2010;107:181-186.  Abstract
  • Kuraoka, M; Liao, D; Yang, K; Allgood, SD; Levesque, MC; Kelsoe, G; Ueda, Y. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase expression and activity in the absence of germinal centers: insights into hyper-IgM syndrome. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 2009;183:3237-3248.  Abstract
  • Ueda, Y; Cain, DW; Kuraoka, M; Kondo, M; Kelsoe, G. IL-1R type I-dependent hemopoietic stem cell proliferation is necessary for inflammatory granulopoiesis and reactive neutrophilia. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 2009;182:6477-6484.  Abstract
  • DiLillo, DJ; Hamaguchi, Y; Ueda, Y; Yang, K; Uchida, J; Haas, KM; Kelsoe, G; Tedder, TF. Maintenance of long-lived plasma cells and serological memory despite mature and memory B cell depletion during CD20 immunotherapy in mice. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 2008;180:361-371.  Abstract
  • Davila, M; Liu, F; Cowell, LG; Lieberman, AE; Heikamp, E; Patel, A; Kelsoe, G. Multiple, conserved cryptic recombination signals in VH gene segments: detection of cleavage products only in pro B cells. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 2007;204:3195-3208.  Abstract
  • Ueda, Y; Liao, D; Yang, K; Patel, A; Kelsoe, G. T-independent activation-induced cytidine deaminase expression, class-switch recombination, and antibody production by immature/transitional 1 B cells. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 2007;178:3593-3601.  Abstract
  • Haynes, BF; Moody, MA; Verkoczy, L; Kelsoe, G; Alam, SM. Antibody polyspecificity and neutralization of HIV-1: a hypothesis. Human antibodies. 2005;14:59-67.  Abstract
  • Ueda, Y; Kondo, M; Kelsoe, G. Inflammation and the reciprocal production of granulocytes and lymphocytes in bone marrow. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 2005;201:1771-1780.  Abstract
  • Ueda, Y; Yang, K; Foster, SJ; Kondo, M; Kelsoe, G. Inflammation controls B lymphopoiesis by regulating chemokine CXCL12 expression. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 2004;199:47-58.  Abstract
  • Cowell, LG; Davila, M; Yang, K; Kepler, TB; Kelsoe, G. Prospective estimation of recombination signal efficiency and identification of functional cryptic signals in the genome by statistical modeling. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 2003;197:207-220.  Abstract
  • Lee, AI; Fugmann, SD; Cowell, LG; Ptaszek, LM; Kelsoe, G; Schatz, DG. A functional analysis of the spacer of V(D)J recombination signal sequences. PLoS biology. 2003;1:E1.  Abstract
  • Cowell, LG; Davila, M; Kepler, TB; Kelsoe, G. Identification and utilization of arbitrary correlations in models of recombination signal sequences. Genome Biology. 2002;3:RESEARCH0072.  Abstract
  • Dal Porto, JM; Haberman, AM; Kelsoe, G; Shlomchik, MJ. Very low affinity B cells form germinal centers, become memory B cells, and participate in secondary immune responses when higher affinity competition is reduced. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 2002;195:1215-1221.  Abstract
  • Liang, HE; Hsu, LY; Cado, D; Cowell, LG; Kelsoe, G; Schlissel, MS. The "dispensable" portion of RAG2 is necessary for efficient V-to-DJ rearrangement during B and T cell development. Immunity. 2002;17:639-651.  Abstract
  • Davila, M; Foster, S; Kelsoe, G; Yang, K. A role for secondary V(D)J recombination in oncogenic chromosomal translocations?. Advances in cancer research. 2001;81:61-92.  Abstract
  • Luzina, IG; Atamas, SP; Storrer, CE; daSilva, LC; Kelsoe, G; Papadimitriou, JC; Handwerger, BS. Spontaneous formation of germinal centers in autoimmune mice. Journal of leukocyte biology. 2001;70:578-584.  Abstract
  • Chen, Z; Koralov, SB; Kelsoe, G. Complement C4 inhibits systemic autoimmunity through a mechanism independent of complement receptors CR1 and CR2. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 2000;192:1339-1352.  Abstract
  • Monroe, RJ; Seidl, KJ; Gaertner, F; Han, S; Chen, F; Sekiguchi, J; Wang, J; Ferrini, R; Davidson, L; Kelsoe, G; Alt, FW. RAG2:GFP knockin mice reveal novel aspects of RAG2 expression in primary and peripheral lymphoid tissues. Immunity. 1999;11:201-212.  Abstract
  • Takahashi, Y; Cerasoli, DM; Dal Porto, JM; Shimoda, M; Freund, R; Fang, W; Telander, DG; Malvey, EN; Mueller, DL; Behrens, TW; Kelsoe, G. Relaxed negative selection in germinal centers and impaired affinity maturation in bcl-xL transgenic mice. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 1999;190:399-410.  Abstract
  • Dal Porto, JM; Haberman, AM; Shlomchik, MJ; Kelsoe, G. Antigen drives very low affinity B cells to become plasmacytes and enter germinal centers. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 1998;161:5373-5381.  Abstract
  • Takahashi, Y; Dutta, PR; Cerasoli, DM; Kelsoe, G. In situ studies of the primary immune response to (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl. V. Affinity maturation develops in two stages of clonal selection. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 1998;187:885-895.  Abstract
  • Han, S; Dillon, SR; Zheng, B; Shimoda, M; Schlissel, MS; Kelsoe, G. V(D)J recombinase activity in a subset of germinal center B lymphocytes. Science. 1997;278:301-305.  Abstract
  • Zheng, B; Han, S; Zhu, Q; Goldsby, R; Kelsoe, G. Alternative pathways for the selection of antigen-specific peripheral T cells. Nature. 1996;384:263-266.  Abstract
  • Han, S; Zheng, B; Dal Porto, J; Kelsoe, G. In situ studies of the primary immune response to (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl. IV. Affinity-dependent, antigen-driven B cell apoptosis in germinal centers as a mechanism for maintaining self-tolerance. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 1995;182:1635-1644.  Abstract
  • Zheng, B; Xue, W; Kelsoe, G. Locus-specific somatic hypermutation in germinal centre T cells. Nature. 1994;372:556-559.  Abstract
  • Jacob, J; Przylepa, J; Miller, C; Kelsoe, G. In situ studies of the primary immune response to (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl. III. The kinetics of V region mutation and selection in germinal center B cells. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 1993;178:1293-1307.  Abstract
  • Jacob, J; Kelsoe, G. In situ studies of the primary immune response to (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl. II. A common clonal origin for periarteriolar lymphoid sheath-associated foci and germinal centers. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 1992;176:679-687.  Abstract
  • Jacob, J; Kassir, R; Kelsoe, G. In situ studies of the primary immune response to (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl. I. The architecture and dynamics of responding cell populations. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 1991;173:1165-1175.  Abstract
  • Jacob, J; Kelsoe, G; Rajewsky, K; Weiss, U. Intraclonal generation of antibody mutants in germinal centres. Nature. 1991;354:389-392.  Abstract
  • Kaushik, A; Schulze, DH; Bonilla, FA; Bona, C; Kelsoe, G. Stochastic pairing of heavy-chain and kappa light-chain variable gene families occurs in polyclonally activated B cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA. 1990;87:4932-4936.  Abstract
  • Kaushik, A; Schulze, DH; Bona, C; Kelsoe, G. Murine V kappa gene expression does not follow the VH paradigm. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 1989;169:1859-1864.  Abstract
  • Kelsoe, G. Cloning of mitogen- and antigen-reactive B lymphocytes on filter paper disks: phenotypic and genotypic analysis of B cell colonies. Methods in Enzymology. 1987;150:287-304.  Abstract
  • Schulze, DH; Kelsoe, G. Genotypic analysis of B cell colonies by in situ hybridization. Stoichiometric expression of three VH families in adult C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 1987;166:163-172.  Abstract
  • Reth, M; Kelsoe, G; Rajewsky, K. Idiotypic regulation by isologous monoclonal anti-idiotope antibodies. Nature. 1981;290:257-259.  Abstract
  • Kelsoe, G; Isaak, D; Cerny, J. Thymic requirement for cyclical idiotypic and reciprocal anti-idiotypic immune responses to a T-independent antigen. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 1980;151:289-300.  Abstract
  • Kelsoe, G; Cerny, J. Reciprocal expansions of idiotypic and anti-idiotypic clones following antigen stimulation. Nature. 1979;279:333-334.  Abstract
  • Kelsoe, GH; Weller, TH. Immunodiagnosis of infection with Schistosoma mansoni: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibody to circulating antigen. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA. 1978;75:5715-5717.  Abstract