Richard Lee Reinhardt, PhD



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Adjunct Assistant Professor in the Department of Immunology
1400 Jackson Street
K817 Goodman Building
Denver, CO 80206
Office Telephone:
(303) 270-2717
  • PhD, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, 2002
Research Interests:

My current research objectives are directed toward understanding immune responses in vivo. Much work has been invested in determining the molecular events that drive CD4+ T helper cell differentiation in vitro as well as the critical cellular players necessary for initiating an adaptive immune response within lymphoid tissues. However, it has been difficult to address true CD4+ T helper cell biology due to a lack of experimental systems designed to access CD4+ T cell function directly in vivo.

Thus, my specific interests are developing new methods to study CD4+ T cells during the effector and memory phase of the immune response in the context of different parasitic, bacterial, and viral models of infection. I am interested in comparing the phenotype and function of CD4+ T-helper cells residing in the secondary lymphoid tissues (such as spleen and lymph nodes) to those residing at sites of infection. In particular, my goal is to understand the relationship between cytokine-producing T follicular helper cells (Tfh) and conventional T-helper type 1 (Th1), T-helper type 2, and follicular regulatory T cells (Tfr). Particular attention will be focused on elucidating the role that these functionally distinct T-helper cells play in maintaining immunologic memory, and how dis-regulation of these subsets can impact B cell lymphoma development, asthma, and autoinflammatory disease. We are also committed to understanding how exposure to microbes in early-life can influence T-helper cell differentiation, regulatory function, and disease onset. Currently our models focus on understanding how helminth colonization impacts allergic disease onset and severity.

The broad, long term goals of this research program are to understand the cellular and molecular events driving the differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into different T-helper cell subsets, and to investigate the function, plasticity, and cell fate decisions of these cells during a primary and secondary immune response. Elucidating the signals and events that regulate T-helper cell differentiation (i.e. Th1, Th2,Tfh, Treg,Tfr) and function (i.e. cytokine production) will have broad implications in basic CD4+ T cell biology and provide important insights that will aid in the fight against infectious disease, cancer, allergic asthma, and autoinflammatory diseases. 
Representative Publications:
  • O'Brien, TF; Bao, K; Dell'Aringa, M; Ang, WX; Abraham, S; Reinhardt, RL. Cytokine expression by invariant natural killer T cells is tightly regulated throughout development and settings of type-2 inflammation. Mucosal immunology. 2016;9:597-609.  Abstract
  • Bao, K; Reinhardt, RL. The differential expression of IL-4 and IL-13 and its impact on type-2 immunity. Cytokine. 2015;75:25-37.  Abstract
  • Reinhardt, RL; Liang, HE; Bao, K; Price, AE; Mohrs, M; Kelly, BL; Locksley, RM. A novel model for IFN-¿-mediated autoinflammatory syndromes. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 2015;194:2358-2368.  Abstract
  • Publicover, J; Gaggar, A; Nishimura, S; Horn, CMV; Goodsell, A; Muench, MO; Reinhardt, RL; Rooijen, NV; Wakil, AE; Peters, M; Cyster, JG; Erle, DJ; Rosenthal, P; Cooper, S; Baron, JL. Age-dependent hepatic lymphoid organization directs successful immunity to hepatitis B. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2013;123:3728-3739.  Abstract
  • Liang, HE; Reinhardt, RL; Bando, JK; Sullivan, BM; Ho, IC; Locksley, RM. Divergent expression patterns of IL-4 and IL-13 define unique functions in allergic immunity. Nature Immunology. 2012;13:58-66.  Abstract
  • Price, AE; Reinhardt, RL; Liang, HE; Locksley, RM. Marking and quantifying IL-17A-producing cells in vivo. PloS one. 2012;7.  Abstract
  • Price, AE; Liang, HE; Sullivan, BM; Reinhardt, RL; Eisley, CJ; Erle, DJ; Locksley, RM. Systemically dispersed innate IL-13-expressing cells in type 2 immunity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA. 2010;107:11489-11494.  Abstract
  • Reinhardt, RL; Liang, HE; Locksley, RM. Cytokine-secreting follicular T cells shape the antibody repertoire. Nature Immunology. 2009;10:385-393.  Abstract
  • Reinhardt, RL; Hong, S; Kang, SJ; Wang, ZE; Locksley, RM. Visualization of IL-12/23p40 in vivo reveals immunostimulatory dendritic cell migrants that promote Th1 differentiation. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 2006;177:1618-1627.  Abstract
  • Reinhardt, RL; Kang, SJ; Liang, HE; Locksley, RM. T helper cell effector fates--who, how and where?. Current Opinion in Immunology. 2006;18:271-277.  Abstract
  • Scheu, S; Stetson, DB; Reinhardt, RL; Leber, JH; Mohrs, M; Locksley, RM. Activation of the integrated stress response during T helper cell differentiation. Nature Immunology. 2006;7:644-651.  Abstract
  • Park, HS; Costalonga, M; Reinhardt, RL; Dombek, PE; Jenkins, MK; Cleary, PP. Primary induction of CD4 T cell responses in nasal associated lymphoid tissue during group A streptococcal infection. European Journal of Immunology. 2004;34:2843-2853.  Abstract
  • Stetson, DB; Voehringer, D; Grogan, JL; Xu, M; Reinhardt, RL; Scheu, S; Kelly, BL; Locksley, RM. Th2 cells: orchestrating barrier immunity. Advances in immunology. 2004;83:163-189.  Abstract
  • Itano, AA; McSorley, SJ; Reinhardt, RL; Ehst, BD; Ingulli, E; Rudensky, AY; Jenkins, MK. Distinct dendritic cell populations sequentially present antigen to CD4 T cells and stimulate different aspects of cell-mediated immunity. Immunity. 2003;19:47-57.  Abstract
  • Reinhardt, RL; Bullard, DC; Weaver, CT; Jenkins, MK. Preferential accumulation of antigen-specific effector CD4 T cells at an antigen injection site involves CD62E-dependent migration but not local proliferation. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 2003;197:751-762.  Abstract
  • Reinhardt, RL; Jenkins, MK. Whole-body analysis of T cell responses. Current Opinion in Immunology. 2003;15:366-371.  Abstract
  • Stetson, DB; Mohrs, M; Reinhardt, RL; Baron, JL; Wang, ZE; Gapin, L; Kronenberg, M; Locksley, RM. Constitutive cytokine mRNAs mark natural killer (NK) and NK T cells poised for rapid effector function. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 2003;198:1069-1076.  Abstract
  • Jiang, Y; Jahagirdar, BN; Reinhardt, RL; Schwartz, RE; Keene, CD; Ortiz-Gonzalez, XR; Reyes, M; Lenvik, T; Lund, T; Blackstad, M; Du, J; Aldrich, S; Lisberg, A; Low, WC; Largaespada, DA; Verfaillie, CM. Pluripotency of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adult marrow. Nature. 2002;418:41-49.  Abstract
  • McSorley, SJ; Asch, S; Costalonga, M; Reinhardt, RL; Jenkins, MK. Tracking salmonella-specific CD4 T cells in vivo reveals a local mucosal response to a disseminated infection. Immunity. 2002;16:365-377.  Abstract
  • Erickson, HA; Reinhardt, RL; Hermanson, JB; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, A; Pennell, CA. Visualization of immunotoxin-mediated tumor cell death in vivo. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2001;7:890s-894s.  Abstract
  • Jenkins, MK; Khoruts, A; Ingulli, E; Mueller, DL; McSorley, SJ; Reinhardt, RL; Itano, A; Pape, KA. In vivo activation of antigen-specific CD4 T cells. Annual Review of Immunology. 2001;19:23-45.  Abstract
  • Reichert, P; Reinhardt, RL; Ingulli, E; Jenkins, MK. Cutting edge: in vivo identification of TCR redistribution and polarized IL-2 production by naive CD4 T cells. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 2001;166:4278-4281.  Abstract
  • Reinhardt, RL; Khoruts, A; Merica, R; Zell, T; Jenkins, MK. Visualizing the generation of memory CD4 T cells in the whole body. Nature. 2001;410:101-105.  Abstract
  • Martin, EL; Reinhardt, RL; Baum, LL; Becker, MR; Shaffer, JJ; Kokjohn, TA. The effects of ultraviolet radiation on the moderate halophile Halomonas elongata and the extreme halophile Halobacterium salinarum. Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 2000;46:180-187.  Abstract
  • Merica, R; Khoruts, A; Pape, KA; Reinhardt, RL; Jenkins, MK. Antigen-experienced CD4 T cells display a reduced capacity for clonal expansion in vivo that is imposed by factors present in the immune host. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 2000;164:4551-4557.  Abstract